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The flood are caused by inadequate carrying capacity and overbank flow in un-embanked rivers, through gaps in embankment or manmade or natural embankment breaches, inadequate waterways in rail and road bridges, non-operation of sluice gates during floods, concurrent floods in main river and tributary, siltation and change in river course and avulsion, drainage congestion behind and between embankments, drainage congestion between embankments of main river and tributaries, and impeded natural drainage and water logging caused by micro-relief.

The heavy rainfall observations in Nepal and flood forecast from IMD/CWC currently initiates emergency response management action by GoB agencies. Improved flood forecasting in lead time and accuracy, and predicting expected inundation, supported by customized medium range rainfall forecasts from IMD. Flood management is considerably strengthened through the Flood Management Information System Cell (FMISC), created within the WRD, supported by the Flood Management Information System, to be developed through the assistance of NRSC and other agencies. Institutional linkage to and arrangements within GoB agencies of WRD, Disaster Management Department (DMD) and Agriculture, and effective community outreach, would be strengthened to translate FMIS information products into flood management actions. The Bihar FMIS would also subsequently interface with the national disaster management programme of Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) of GOI.



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