
RIVER BASIN
There are eight river basins in FMIS focus area:
1.
Gandak
2. Burhi gandak
3. Bagmati
4. Adhwara group
5. Kamla Balan
6.
Kosi
7. Mahananda
8. Ganga Stem in Bihar
1. Gandak
The river Gandhak originates at an altitude of 7620
m above MSL in the north of Dhaulagisi in Tibet near Nepal border at
Latitude 29^{0}18' N and Longitude 83^{0}58'E, in the
shownypeaks of the Himalyas. The river enters the Indian territory near
Tribeni town in Nepal. Thereafterd the river flows in a southerly
direction and forms boundary between Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. It flows
through the west Champaran, East Champaran, Muzaffarpur, Gopalganj,
Siwan, Saren and Vaishali districts of Bihar and Gorakhpur and Deoria
district of Uttar Pradesh before joining Ganga at Hazipur.
1. 
Total Drainage Area 
40553 Sq.Km 
2. 
Drainage Area in Bihar 
4188 Sq.Km 
4. 
Water resources
(Surface) 
51998 MCM 
5. 
Average annual rainfall 
1125 mm 
6. 
Total length of main river 
640 Km 
7. 
Cropped area in Bihar 
2510 Sq.Km 
8. 
Tributaries:
Bhabsa(L), Harha(L), Kakra(R) 
2.Burhi gandak
The river Burhi Gandak originates from chautarwa chaur near Bisambharpur in the district of West Champaran in Bihar and flows through the districts of East champaran ,Muzaffarpur, Samastipur and Begusarai. It outfalls into the Ganga near Khagaria. The total catchment area is 12021 sq.Km, out of which 9601 sq.Km lies in Bihar and rest in Nepal. There is no major or medium project over the Burhi Gandak river system.
Salient Features of the Burhi Gandak Basin:
1. 
Total Drainage Area 
12021 Sq.Km 
2. 
Drainage Area in Bihar 
9601 Sq.Km 
3. 
Population in Bihar 
83.01 Lakh 
4. 
Water resources 
4040 MCM 
5. 
Average annual rainfall 
1283 mm 
6. 
Total length of main river 
320 Km 
7. 
Cropped area in Bihar 
7600 Sq.Km 
8. 
Tributaries:
Masan(L), Balor(L), Pandai(L), Sikta(L), Tilawe(L), Tiur(L), Dhanauti(R), Kohra(R), Danda(R), 
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3. Bagmati
Bagmati is a perennial river of North Bihar. It originates from the shivpuri range of hills in Nepal at latitude 27^{0} 47’ N and longitude 85^{0} 17’E., 16 Km NorthEast of Kathmandu at an elevation of 1500 m above MSL. It enters Indian territory in Bihar in the village Shorwatia in Sitamarhi district, nearly 2.5 Km north of Dheng railway station.The total length of this river is about 589 Km .It traverses nearly 195 Km in Nepal and rest 394 Km in Bihar. It outfalls in the kosi at Badlaghat.
4. Adhwara group
Adhwara group of rivers originates from foot hills of Nepal. Nearly 70% of discharge of this river passes through the Khiroi. The rest 30 percent goes to meet the river Dhaus near Karharaghat. Then the river crosses north of Kamtaul railway station and finally falls into the Darbhanga Bagmati at Ekmighat .
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Salient Features of the Bagmati Basin including Adhwara
1. 
Total Drainage Area 
14,384 Sq Km 
2. 
Drainage Area in Bihar 
6500 Sq Km 
3. 
Population in Bihar 
55.30 Lakh 
4. 
Water resources 
2184.4 MCM 
5. 
Average annual rainfall 
1255 mm 
6. 
Total length of main river in Bihar 
394 Km 
7. 
Cropped area in Bihar 
5362 Sq Km 
8. 
Tributaries: Lalbakeya(R), Lakhandei(L), DarbhangaBagmati(L), Old kamla(L), Hasanpur Bagmati(R) 
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5. Kamla Balan
The river Kamla originates from Mahabharat range of hills in Nepal near Sindhuliagarhi at an elevation of 1200 metres at the latitude 27^{0}15^{'} N and longitude 85^{0}57^{'} E.It enters Indian territory in the district of Madhubani in Bihar,3.5 Km upstream of Jainagar town.A barrage known as Kamla barrage has been constructed by the state Government near Jainagar.It joins the river Kareh (Bagmati) at Badlaghat.The total length of the river Kamla –Balan is 328 Km of which 208 Km is in Nepal and the remaining 120 Km is in India. The river Kamla –Balan drains a total catchment area of 7232 Sq Km. Out of this 4488 Sq Km lies in Bihar in India and the rest 2744 Sq Km in Nepal.
Salient Features of the Kamla Basin:
1. 
Total Drainage Area 
7232 Sq. Km. 
2. 
Drainage Area in Bihar 
4488 Sq. Km. 
3. 
Population in Bihar 
38.72 Lakh 
4. 
Water resources 
3249.40 MCM 
5. 
Average annual rainfall 
1260 mm 
6. 
Total length of main river in Bihar 
120 Km. 
7. 
Cropped area in Bihar 
2744 Sq Km 
8. 
Tributaries : Mainawati(L), Dhauri(L), Soni(L), Balan(L), Trisula(L). 
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6.Kosi
The river Kosi originates at an altitude of over 7000 m above MSL in the Himalayas. The upper catchment of the river system lies in Nepal and Tibet. The highest peak in the world , the Mount Everest and the Kanchenjunga are in the Kosi catchment.It is known as Sapta Kosi in Nepal.It enters the Indian territory near Hanuman Nagar in Nepal.It joins the Ganga river near Kursela in Katihar district. The river Kosi drains a total catchment area of 74030 Sq.Km in India and other countries.Out of the total catchment area of the Kosi, only 11410 Sq.Km lies in India and the rest 62620 Sq.Km lies in Tibet and Nepal.
Salient Features of the Kosi Basin:
1. 
Total Drainage Area 
74030 Sq. Km 
2. 
Drainage Area in Bihar 
11410 Sq. Km 
3. 
Population in Bihar 
66.55 Lakh 
4. 
Water resources 
52219 MCM 
5. 
Average annual rainfall 
1456 mm 
6. 
Total length of main river in Bihar 
260 Km 
7. 
Cropped area in Bihar 
8694 Sq.Km 
8. 
Tributaries: Bagmati(R), Kamla Balan(R), Bhuthi Balan(R), Trijuga(R), Fariani dhar(L), Dhemama dhar(L) 
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7. Mahananda
8. Ganga Stem in Bihar
There are few small river that
meat river Ganga directly such as River Karmnasha near Chausa, river
KaoThora near Bukar, river Dharmawati and Gangi between Buxar and
Ara and river Gerua near Ghogha (Bhagalpur) from right side and
river Mahi near Sonepur and river Baya near Bachhwara from left side
in Bihar known as Ganga stem Basin.

